Electron Beam Welding | Application, Advantages and Disadvantages

Electron Beam welding (EBW) Advantages, Disadvantages, Application:

Definition of Electron Beam Welding:
The process using radiant energy and melting of metal is done by high velocity beam of electrons used for producing high temperatures and thus melting the filler metal which solidifies on cooling giving a mass with the pieces to be welded.

Working principle of EBW:

electron beam welding
Electron beam welding

Tie joint preparation is required in this process and hence it is done first and thereafter cleaning of the workpiece and demagnetizing of fixture and workpiece is done. If this is not done then the possibility of change of direction increases. The job is arranged in the fixture and a vacuum is created in the weld chamber. If the necessary workpiece is preheated. After those parameters of the process are set & welding is started.

The tungsten present at the top of the vacuum chamber act as a cathode. The current is passed through it to heat up to 2000 degree C so that electrons are emitted from it. These emitted electrons move towards the workpiece through a small hole of the anode. They are controlled by a coil provided in between workpieces and anode. 

When these high-velocity electrons strike to the workpiece surface then kinetic energy is converted into heat energy due to which metal and joint become possible. The welding in this process is done by keeping a workpiece in a vacuum or in an open atmosphere.

The variables of this process are as under.

1. Accelerating voltage: Its increase gives increased penetration.
2. Beam current: Penetration can be increased by increasing it.
3. Welding speed: Penetration can be increased by reducing speed.
4. Focusing current: Controls the focal length of the beam.
5. Distance between gun & workpiece: Controls the size of the beam spot.

Also Read: Shaper Machine

Tools and Equipment :

1. Electron beam welding machine consisting of tungsten filament, cathode, electrode, anode & focusing arrangement.
2. Vacuum pumping unit
3. Fixtures and other tools
4. Power source

Advantages & disadvantages of Electron Beam Welding:


1. High-quality welds are obtained.
2. The heat-affected zone is too narrow.
3. Titanium & zirconium are highly reactive metals can be welded due
to hard vacuum.
4. Butt weld up to 4 mm thickness can be produced without edge preparation.
5. Thin parts can be joined with thick parts.
6. The input power required is less in comparison to other electric welding processes.


  1. Initial cost of equipment is too high.
  2. Time is consumed for creating vacuum.
  3. Care should be exercised to prevent damage due to x-rays.
  4. The electron beam can travel only in a straight line hence joints having restrictions cannot be welded.
  1. The work piece size limit imposed by the volume of the chamber.

Applications of Electron Beam Welding Welding (EBW):

  1. To weld reactive and refractory metals.
  2. To weld two dissimilar metals.
  3. To weld stainless steel and titanium metals.
  4. To carry out careful welding work in the field of aircraft and automobiles.
  5. The joints difficult to made by other processes can be made easily.
  6. To weld metals used in the field of atomic energy or space such as tungsten, beryllium, molybdenum, and tantalum.
  7. To carry out high-quality welding in mass production using the automatic process.
  8. To join these films of metals with 100 mm thick metals.
  9. In assembly work of cam, gear, cluster & driven shaft.
  10. For welding at the places where it is not possible to make welded joint by the other processes.

Also Read: Drilling Machine

Electron Beam Welding | Application, Advantages and Disadvantages Electron Beam Welding | Application, Advantages and Disadvantages Reviewed by Harish on July 21, 2020 Rating: 5


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